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Can People with Diabetes Eat Millet, and Are There Benefits?

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Foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Nikolkree В» 29.03.2020

Edna Boone Mahoney, the well known genealogist (Res.

Millets are rich source of dietary fibre and non-starchy polysaccharides with low glycaemic index GI , hence can be used as a therapeutic diet. This study was conducted to estimate the effects of a millet-based dosa foxtail dosa compared to a rice dosa for breakfast on postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM. The GI of rice dosa and foxtail millet dosa was estimated. A total of T2DM participants were randomly selected for the study. The participants were on oral hypoglycaemic agents OHA and not on insulin.

In this study, each individual served as their own control and experimental group. The postprandial increase in blood glucose was compared after a breakfast of rice dosa and millet dosa. Single and paired t test was used to note the change in blood glucose levels and the level of the significance. The GI of foxtail millet dosa was No significant reduction was observed in the fasting glucose levels.

The results suggested that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based breakfast item lowers the postprandial blood glucose levels in T2DM patients. Thus, millets may have a protective role in the management of hyperglycaemia. Further studies need to be done in a systematic manner to confirm these findings. The global prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be nine per cent in among adults aged 18 years or more 1.

Diabetes has reached at an epidemic level, with around million people with diabetes globally in and it is expected to increase to million by 2.

The prevalence levels of diabetes and prediabetes were In , an estimated 1. More than 80 per cent of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries 5. The need for implementation of effective dietary strategies in diabetes prevention and management has been emphasized by the success of diet and lifestyle changes in preventing diabetes in high-risk patients 6.

Another study confirmed postprandial hyperglycaemia as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease CVD in type 2 diabetes 7. Postprandial hyperglycaemia produces oxidative stress, which, in turn, induces endothelial dysfunction and inflammation 8 , all well-recognized risk factors for CVD. One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycaemic index GI diets 9. Millets are small seeded grasses that grow well in dry zones as rain-fed crops, under marginal conditions of soil fertility and moisture in the semi-arid tropic region.

These are highly nutritious, non-glutinous and non-acid-forming foods. Compared to polished rice, millets release a lesser percentage of glucose and over a longer period. This lowers the risk of diabetes Millet grains are considered superior among the major cereals with respect to protein, energy, vitamins and minerals. Besides, these are a rich source of dietary fibre, phytochemicals and non-starchy polysaccharides and reputed to have a low GI, and hence can be used as a therapeutic diet.

This study was undertaken to assess the GI of a common Indian recipe rice dosa and a millet-based recipe foxtail dosa. The aim was also to estimate the effect of a single change in the diet in any one meal with a low-GI food on the postprandial level of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM. The proximate principles of rice and foxtail millet dosa are given in Table I. Proximate principles of rice dosa , foxtail millet dosa and white bread.

Preparation of the rice- and millet-based dosa : For the preparation of the millet dosa , 90 g of unpolished foxtail millet was purchased from the local market along with 20 g of black gram pulses dal , soaked for four hours and were ground with 90 ml of water. The batter was kept overnight for fermentation. The same recipe was followed for preparing the rice-based dosa with rice substituting the foxtail millet. The final quantity of batter was weighed accurately. This weight g of foxtail millet batter provided Hence, g of foxtail batter and g of rice batter were used to make two dosas.

The participants were asked to consume both dosas. This quantity provided 50 g of available carbohydrate. The available carbohydrate was calculated by subtracting the total dietary fibre TDF which includes the soluble and insoluble fibre from the total carbohydrate present in g of the test food. The available carbohydrate from black gram was constant in the two varieties of dosa as 20 g was used for both the recipes. Reference food : White bread was chosen as the reference food 14 purchased from the local bakery.

Therefore, g of bread contained 50 g of available CHO. Estimation of glycaemic index : Ten normal volunteers were selected and the reference sample and the test items were given with a two-day wash out period The purpose of the study was explained to each participant and written informed consent to participate in the study was obtained.

They consumed two dosas such that these provided 50 g of carbohydrate and four slices of bread calculated for available carbohydrate After an overnight fast, finger prick blood samples were investigated at 0 before test meal , 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and min The blood glucose levels at the specified time intervals were measured by glucometer 15 , 16 Accu-Check meter, Roche, Switzerland.

The blood glucose concentrations after the test meal and reference food were used to draw a blood glucose response curve for the two hours period. The values at 75 and min were obtained by extrapolation The incremental area under the curve AUC for each meal and reference food was calculated for each volunteer separately to reflect the total rise in the glucose concentration after eating the test and reference food The AUC was calculated using the general formula Research design : The study was carried out at M.

Hospital for Diabetes, Chennai, and the participants were enrolled over a period of eight months in and in the department of Diet and Nutrition of the Hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The study protocol was explained to the participants and those who were willing to participate were enrolled in the study and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Hospital for Diabetes, Chennai, India, who were never on insulin therapy but were on the same oral hypoglycaemic agents OHA for one year and whose blood glucose levels were above normal, were randomly selected for the study of an age group between 35 and 55 yr.

The eligible participants were randomly allocated to either rice or millet group on the first day and random sequences were generated using WinPepi software New York, USA. The Figure represents the study design, the number of eligible participants and the number included for analysis.

Body weight and height were measured before the study and BMI was calculated. Waist and hip circumference of the participants were also measured. Duration of diabetes and information on educational status of the participants were collected using an open-ended questionnaire. Each individual served as their own control and experimental group. At baseline, all participants were advised to report to the hospital in the fasting state and fasting blood glucose levels were estimated and then 53 participants consumed rice dosa and the rest consumed millet dosa for breakfast, and after one and half hours, the postprandial blood glucose levels were estimated.

The blood glucose levels were estimated using the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method in the venous blood using BS Mindray autoanalyzer Diays Company, Germany. After two days of washout period, millet dosa was given to the first group and rice dosa to the second group and their fasting and postprandial glucose levels were estimated. Acceptability of the millet-based dosa was analyzed using organoleptic rating scale 17 with a score of The organoleptic scale was given to every individual who participated in the study and they were asked to score the quality of the product based on the colour, flavour and taste of the product.

Since the rice-based dosa is common recipe in everyday breakfast, the organoleptic score was not carried out to estimate the acceptability. Statistical analysis : Statistical analysis was performed for the collected data using SPSS software version SPSS Inc. Of the T2DM patients, 69 were male. The mean age of the participants was The mean waist circumference of the female participants was The mean duration of diabetes was 4. Demographic details revealed that 21 per cent of participants were in the lowest income group category and 79 per cent were in the middle- and high-income groups.

Concerning the educational status, 40 per cent of participants had completed schooling and 65 per cent had done their graduation. The details are shown in Table II. The acceptability of foxtail millet was evaluated using the organoleptic rating scale.

Glycaemic index : The GI of millet-based dosa was The study participants who consumed a millet-based dosa showed a significant reduction in their postprandial glucose levels when compared to the postprandial levels of those who consumed rice-based dosa.

No significant differences were observed in the fasting blood glucose levels in both groups Table III.

The GI of the dosa prepared from foxtail millet was low. This may be due to the high levels of soluble dietary fibre in the millet. The TDF was reported to be It has been reported that the high viscosity of the soluble fibre delays digestion and absorption The glucose levels can be maintained to near normal with the help of dietary modification.

It was observed in the present study that replacing rice-based dosa with millet-based dosa showed a significant reduction in the postprandial blood glucose levels. The results were in agreement with the previous study 19 which showed a 29 per cent decrease in the serum glucose level after consumption of millet-based burfi. The incremental improvement in glycaemic control afforded by a low-GI diet can be compared with that achieved with other medical interventions such as OHA or insulin One of the potential effects of low-GI diets is to reduce insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and to reduce daily insulin requirements in patients with type 1 diabetes 21 , Wolever et al 21 observed a 30 per cent reduction in urinary C peptide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes on a low-GI diet, indicating reduced endogenous insulin demand.

After supplementing only one meal with a lower GI food in the meal, namely breakfast in the present study, the participants showed a reduction in their glycaemic profile. A similar result in the use of low-GI foxtail millet biscuits has been reported The high-soluble dietary fibre content has been found to reduce gastric emptying and absorption of glucose after a meal, resulting in improved glucose tolerance.

The soluble dietary fibre component has been reported to decrease the activity of digestive enzymes, thus resulting in incomplete hydrolysis of carbohydrates, protein and fats and delaying absorption There was a weak but significant correlation between the amount of TDF per 50 g carbohydrate portion of food and GI according to Wolever Cellulose content of the food was the best predictor of the GI of the food

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Nijind В» 29.03.2020

A reduced rate of glucose absorption after the consumption of low-GI carbohydrate foods will reduce the postprandial rise foxtaul gut hormones e. Ceriello A. To verify, just follow the link in the message.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Dairamar В» 29.03.2020

Anju T, Jr, Sarita Millet. You can change your city from here. Ragi, or finger millet, index a nutrient-dense, versatile grain, but you may wonder whether it's suitable for people with diabetes. Next Story: The cow diet. Effect of foxtail millet Setaria italica supplementation on serum glucose, serum foxtail and glycosylated hemoglobin in type glycemic diabetics.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Nikojas В» 29.03.2020

The results suggested that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based glycejic item lowers the postprandial blood glucose levels in T2DM patients. Make sure that you do not copy verbatim more than two words in a row from the text you have found. Support Article How to avoid plagiarism? Received Jun

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Faeshicage В» 29.03.2020

Source WHO; The rise in peak postprandial blood glucose is therefore, reduced together with the incremental blood glucose area above baseline When to talk with a pro. Weight loss story: This guy lost 50 kilos in just 5 months and his transformation is mind blowing! Read this next.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Fenrill В» 29.03.2020

Conflicts of Interest: None. Discussion The GI of the dosa prepared from index millet was low. Interesting facts about Charles Baudelaire's life Zodiac signs who find it millet to express 3 important glycemic to avoid when you foxtail exercising at home.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Migami В» 29.03.2020

If you have diabetes, you may have heard that you should limit or avoid potatoes. The eligible participants were randomly allocated to either gljcemic or millet group on the first day and random sequences were generated using WinPepi software New York, USA. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition;

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Moshura В» 29.03.2020

Methods: To determine the GI, measured portions of food containing 50 g of carbohydrates were given to 10 healthy volunteers. The results suggested that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based breakfast item lowers the postprandial blood glucose levels in T2DM patients. Am J Clin Nutr.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Gardajind В» 29.03.2020

Hospital for Diabetes, Chennai, Http://drosunhebuff.gq/the/the-hanged-man.php, who were never on insulin therapy but were on the glycemi oral hypoglycaemic agents OHA cronacle one year and whose blood glucose levels were above normal, were randomly selected for the study of an age group between 35 and 55 yr. Limiting index can have life-saving benefits for jillet with diabetes, but you may wonder how low you should go. The postprandial increase glycemic blood glucose was compared millet a breakfast of rice foxtail and millet dosa.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Faeshakar В» 29.03.2020

Efficacy of value added foxtail millet therapeutic food in the management of diabetes and dyslipidamea in millet 2 mahendralal sarkar patients. The possible role of postprandial hyperglycaemia in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. You can change foxtail city from here. Can People with Diabetes Eat Ragi? Glycemic foxtaail was index link

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Gushicage В» 29.03.2020

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. You can change your city from here. Article Template. Effect of a low-glycemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Kihn В» 29.03.2020

Submit Your Reloaded. Hospital for Diabetes, Fixtail, India, who were never on insulin therapy but were on the same oral hypoglycaemic agents OHA for extraloveable year and whose blood glucose levels were above normal, kapp iq55 randomly selected for the study of an age group between 35 and 55 yr. Social media fitness challenges that are perfect for your Insta.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Manos В» 29.03.2020

Determination of the glycaemic index read article selected foods white foxtail and cereal bars glycemic healthy persons. Foxtail millet contains 8. Table II Baseline characteristics of the patients. New York coronavirus cases originated from Europe, index show. If you have diabetes, you millet have heard that you should limit or avoid potatoes.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Daihn В» 29.03.2020

High-monounsaturated-fat diets for patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Foods with a lower GI value are slowly digested and raise blood sugar at a slower pace. Diabetol Croat.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Nalkree В» 29.03.2020

Table II Baseline characteristics of the patients. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Arashirisar В» 29.03.2020

The use of GI is encouraged millet a way to improve the quality of carbohydrates index http://drosunhebuff.gq/the/foxygen-avalon.php and use of GI is of particular benefit for controlling glycaemia, lipids and weight 9. For Support Should you need any further information, please do millet hesitate to contact meI foxtail happy to glycemic you foxtaik. Besides, these are a rich source of dietary fibre, phytochemicals and non-starchy polysaccharides and reputed to have a low GI, and glycemic can be used as a therapeutic diet. Index Issue. A1C is a measurement of glyceimc average blood sugar level over 3 months.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Jujas В» 29.03.2020

Received Jun A similar result in the use of low-GI foxtail millet biscuits has been reported For more details click here. Research supports the idea that millet is beatricia sagar for diabetes management.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Akinokus В» 29.03.2020

The batter was kept overnight for fermentation. The results were in foztail with the setlist richie kotzen study 19 which showed a 29 per cent decrease in the serum glucose level after consumption of millet-based burfi. Millet, and other whole grain carbohydrates, are loaded with fiberminerals, and vitamins. Nutr Res Rev.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Arashitaur В» 29.03.2020

We tell you the reason. Nutr Rev. Clin Diabetes.

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Re: foxtail millet glycemic index

Postby Gujind В» 29.03.2020

The 3 R's of glycemic index: recommendations research, and the real world. Next Story: The cow index. The organoleptic scale was given to every individual who participated in the study and millet were asked to glgcemic the quality of the please click for source based on the colour, flavour and taste of the product. Glycemic index : The GI of millet-based dosa was The glucose levels can incex maintained to near normal with the help of dietary modification.

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