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Young Turk Revolution

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Young turks revolution

Postby Zolotilar В» 13.01.2020

Mudd was a soldier during the Civil War.

The Young Turk movement brought together various intellectuals and dissidents, many living in exile and officers in the army, especially those based at the headquarters of the Third Army Corps in Salonika. Although inspired by the spirit of nationalism that was sweeping through Europe which had already had cost the Empire most of its Balkan provinces, the movement promoted a vision of a democratic multi-national state. The Revolution restored the parliament , which had been suspended by the Sultan in However, the process of replacing existing institutions with constitutional institutions proved much more difficult than expected and before long power was invested in a new elite, led by the Grand Vizier.

The movement wanted to modernize and democratize on the one hand while on the other it wanted to preserve what was left of the empire. The promised decentralization was abandoned when the leaders realized that this compromised security. In fact, the periphery of the Empire continued to splinter under pressure from local revolutions. Indifference from former allies such as the British which, as did France had ambitions in the region, the Young Turks were compelled to embrace Germany as an ally in the hope that this would preserve the empire.

Instead, this alliance led to the Ottoman defeat in World War I and to the end of their own power after the war. The potential democratization project represented by the Young Turk Revolution had at the time no parallel among other imperial powers, such as the British and French , whose leaders were nowhere near contemplating granting self-determination to their African and Asian possessions.

It was influenced by the French Revolution and in turn influenced the Constitution of The movement, however, continued to gather momentum. The Young Turks wanted a democratic solution to the Empire's problems, which included the need for economic reform, tax reform and halting any further disintegration. Almost all Balkan provinces were now independent states.

Although nationalistic, the Young Turk movement opted for a multi-ethnic understanding of the Ottoman space. By granting greater autonomy to different ethnic groups it hoped to preserve the Empire. The movement was "fighting for the modernization and strengthening of the Empire, under Western constitutional principles, and these included the equality of all races. Support for the movement came from diverse groups, including some of the different ethnic and religious communities.

This new organization was dominated by the officers of the Third Army. Fearing the army, the Sultan was starving it of funds. Although some members wanted to abolish the sultanate, most wanted to impose constitutional limitations on the sultan's power. From the outset, members believed that a revolution would be necessary to end the sultan's authoritarian rule.

Two congresses of opposition to the Ottoman regime were held, one in and the other in The second occurred in Paris, France. The goal was to unite all parties, including Young Turks, to advance the revolution. The "Second congress of the Ottoman opposition" took place in Paris , France in During the meeting, an alliance between the two parties was officially declared.

It was, in the end, continued discontent in the 3rd Army Corps that sparked the revolt. Major Ahmed Niyazi, fearing discovery of his political ideas by an investigatory committee sent from the capital as part of the intensive campaign to crush the movement, headed for the capital on July 3, with followers demanding restoration of the Constitution.

The sultan's attempt to suppress this uprising failed, due to the popularity of the movement among the troops, who refused to fight and among general population and the rebellion spread rapidly. The CUP issued its revolutionary proclamation on July 6.

People took to the streets rejoicing, expressing the ideals of the revolution with placards reading "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity and Justice" in "red and white," the colors of the Ottoman flag, "aping the tricolor cockades in Paris in Elections were held and parliament was re-opened by the Sultan on December 17th.

Although it has spearheaded the revolution, the CUP only won 60 of the seats. However, they were the largest party. The first issue they faced was the general breakdown in law and order, the need to restore stability. This included inter-ethnic conflict. The new leaders faced a stark choice; deal harshly with unrest from the center and restore order or proceed with decentralization, which might endanger security and the unity of what remained of the Empire.

The reality was that while the movement had preached the "gospel of harmony" even within parliament the different ethnic groups were squabbling and demanding privileged. By March 31, a counter-coup took place, aiming to re-instate the authority of the Sultan. A few days later, the Army regained power on behalf of the Young Turks. Before long, alliances of the Young Turks and expatriate organizations of various ethnic groups, such as the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, began to fracture, and even the Young Turks struggled to find consensus even among themselves.

Power was in effect exercised by the Grand Vizier and elite party members. According to Fromkin, real power was wielded by the CUP's Central Committee "of about forty members" and especially "its politburo of about twelve members. Instead of enthusiastically supporting the policy of racial harmony, different groups saw the revolution as a sign of the Empire's weakness, and agitated for independence.

Two consequences followed. First, the Young Turks decided that the best policy was to encourage the development of Turkish identity across the Empire to create solidarity across the various ethnic groups. This is referred to as Turkification, a reversal of the original multi-ethnic vision. They passed measures that fixed the number of Armenians and representatives of other groups who could sit in parliament and rigged election to "ensure that most of the deputies belonged to the CUP.

Use of Turkish in the judicial system "led to discontent, inconvenienced judicial officers and litigants and threatened the administration of justice.

The CUP was soon associated with "Turkish despotism" just as the sultan had been, and regional leaders warned of the dangers of Turkification which was also represented as anti- Islamic due to the "personal impiety of CUP members.

Second, the CUP became convinced that while they wanted to end European influence, without a strong European ally "their domains were in mortal danger. These were mini-colonies, where foreign law not Ottoman law prevailed. Britain, formerly an ally, had washed its hands of the Ottomans. Russia was considered but retained ambitions of its own in the region. France was approached but rebuffed any alliance.

In fact, Britain and France had more or less picked out which provinces they intended to acquire, which they did after World War I. This left Germany , a nation which had been cordial since the era of Otto von Bismarck. In August, the Ottoman Empire signed a mutual defense treaty with Germany. Subsequently, the Paris Peace Conference, stripped the rest of the Empire away.

Following a war in which he defeated allied forces again, the nation-state of Turkey was recognized by the Treaty of Lausanne in July Mazower describes the City of Salonika, where the Young Turks dreamed of creating a multi-national state, as for over five centuries one of the most tolerant and diverse communities in Europe. Clashes did take place from time to time but for much of its history Salonika showed how different religions, cultures and ethnic groups could thrive and inter-act peacefully, with each lending to and borrowing from the other.

By the end of World War I, this community was destroyed, along with the Ottoman Empire of which it had been a part. The Young Turk Revolution in almost all respects failed to deliver what it promised.

It promised democracy and decentralization but delivered authoritarianism and centralization. It promised racial-harmony and equality and participation in the state by all ethnic groups, but ended up attempting to impose a single identity on everyone. As ethno-linguistic nationalism swept through Europe, this became the basis for the emergence of many new states , including those that broke free in the Balkans from Ottoman rule.

World War I saw two multi-ethnic empires disintegrate: the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian; both fractured into a series of independent, homogeneous nation-states. Skeptics argue that only mono-cultural states can thrive, that wherever a linguistic-ethnic group forms a majority, it ought to become a state. The failure, however, of the Ottoman experiment was not entirely the fault of the Ottomans or of the CUP. The CUP wanted to preserve the empire but faced both regional nationalism and the predatory ambitions of other powers.

The ethno-linguistic homogeneous nation-state was gaining popularity at the same time as the multi-cultural empire was under external threat. The Young Turks might have coped with the former threat by granting the autonomy they had promised, ensuring a just distribution of wealth, employment and opportunity.

It was in the face the external threat from jealous powers that, in desperation, the Young Turks turned to centralization and what became known as Turkification.

If multi-cultural societies are doomed to disintegrate, this bodes ill for the future of an increasingly inter-connected and inter-dependent world. Among others, Samuel P. Huntington argues against the vitality or desirability of multi-cultural societies, arguing that "a country of many civilizations, which is to say, a country not belonging to any civilization and lacking a cultural core" cannot thrive.

The conditions in which the Young Turks attempted their experiment were unfavorable. However, as migration and global trends produce more and more places like Salonika, ways need to be found to enable multi-cultural and multi-religious communities not merely to survive but to flourish and thrive.

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Tazilkree
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Re: young turks revolution

Postby Dalmaran В» 13.01.2020

Place Turkey. Old Regime — Tulip Era — Political reform movement in the Ottoman Empire.

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Re: young turks revolution

Postby Jukora В» 13.01.2020

In their turn, link acclaimed the revolution as a marvel, which it was in many respects. These developments caused the gradual creation of a new governing elite. A major rival faction was formed those people Prince Sabaheddin. The Young Turks thus began suggesting that Islam itself was materialistic.

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Re: young turks revolution

Postby Balkis В» 13.01.2020

InAbdulhamid II dissolved parliament and suspended the constitution proposed two years earlier and initiated thirty years of autocratic rule. As Muslims fled from the Balkans during the wars of independence, demographic changes shifted the character of the Empire and unionists took over, eliminating their liberal opposition. Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service.

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Re: young turks revolution

Postby Malatilar В» 13.01.2020

The Scarecrow Consider, 5905r thanks. Middle East Revolution Association Bulletin. Retrieved January 27, http://drosunhebuff.gq/review/tmy02.php InYoung Turks Mehmed Talaat, Ahmed Djemal, and Ismail Enver organized a military coup and formed a coalition of ultranationalists who believed that the only way to hold young to the empire was to embrace a radical ideology turks ethnic resettlement, deportation, and eventually, genocide. The Sultan suddenly surrendered by granting a constitution all calling for an election.

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Re: young turks revolution

Postby JoJogrel В» 13.01.2020

Their handling of foreign affairs, however, resulted in the dissolution of the Ottoman state. Demonstration in the Sultanahmet. Many groups, including Armenians and Turks, called for change. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.

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Re: young turks revolution

Postby Fenrikazahn В» 13.01.2020

The outbreak of World War I in the summer of hurks the Young Turks with the perfect cover to carry out their murderous plans. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved 11 August

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